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Glossary A thru Z

Glossary A thru Z

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  • Action Items

    List of items to be actioned, addressed, responded to or closed out.

  • Active Directory

    Active Directory is a directory service created by Microsoft which uses a number of standardised protocols to provide a variety of network services, of which LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is one.

  • Adobe

    Founded in 1982 Adobe is an Amercian multi-national company that is best known for the Photoshop programme and for the PDF (Portable Document Format) which was first released in 1993 and has since become the global standard format for a versatile document creation and reading.

  • ADR

    Alternative Dispute Resolution. See also Arbitration

  • AIIM

    The Association for Information and Image Management is a non-profit organization which provides training and standards for Information Management professionals. It was established in 1982, evolving from the National Microfilm Association which dates back to 1943. Its core values are that information should always be simple, clear, precise, easily accessed at all times in all places, and secure. Refer to: www.aiim.org

  • Annotations

    Annotations are additional notes recorded into an EDMS that are associated with a specific document. They are essentially a notepad function within the EDMS to help record additional useful information. Unlike the metadata of the document, annotations can be edited and changed at any point by the Document Controller (there will still be an audit trail of these various notes).

  • API

    Advanced Programming Interface is a set of tools and protocols used to build software or an application. Specific to the field of document control it is used for developing and programming databases and is also significant in inter-connectability and integration between different company’s technologies.

  • API

    The American Petroleum Institute is an US trade association which as well as providing a powerful lobbying and advocacy for the Oil & Gas industry, also performs research and publishes widely accepted and endorsed industry certifications and standards.

  • Approval

    In  Document Control the term approval refers to the official acceptance of a document and its content (as issued on a specific status for a specific purpose). There are other elements of ‘Approval’ encountered throughout organizations and projects, for example there might be a requirement for Classification Society approval of a document, or a client’s approval of a final commissioning record, or even an approval of comments received on a document from being issued for review (this kind of approval is normally consensual involving multiple individuals to review and advise on the applicability of each individual comment).

  • Approval Codes

    The Approval Code (sometimes also known as a Return or Review Code) is the output of the document review process which returns the document with a predefined review / approval status code which is typically recorded as a Letter or a Number.

    For example:

    • 1 or A – Approved
    • 2 or B – Approved with Comments
    • 3 or C – Rejected
    • 4 or D – Received for Information

    Approval Codes should be clearly recorded within the Document Control Procedure, easily understood and applied by all stakeholders, and easily reported and tracked as Doc Control KPI’s.

  • Approval Matrix

    The Approval Matrix defines who must approve a document to be issued through the Document Control System. Approval for Issue requirements generally vary depending on the type of document, the stage of document development and the issue status.

    For example:

    1. Internal Departmental Work Instruction Requires Depart Head Approval and Document Control Quality Check
    2. Inter-Disciplinary Check of P&ID Requires Department Head, Department Lead and DC Quality Check
    3. P&ID issued for Client Approval Requires Project Manager, Department Head, Department Lead and DC Quality Check
  • Approval Process

    The Approval Process defines the method by which a controlled document is officially issued, distributed and returned with an Approval Code. The Approval Process should be clearly recorded within the Document Control Procedure and easily understood and applied by all stakeholders.

  • Approved for Construction

    AFC document status records that the document Issued For Construction has been approved to be used for construction by the qualified stakeholders (which should be identified in the DDM and quality management documentation. See also IFC

  • Arbitration

    Arbitration is the settlement of a dispute (law, procedure, fact) between parties to a contract by an impartial neutral third party (the arbitrator) without resorting to court action. Arbitration is normally voluntary but can sometimes be required by a law or statute. If both sides agree to be bound by The arbitrator’s decision (the ‘award’) becomes a binding arbitration agreement if both sides (parties) agree with the decision. Arbitration procedure is usually governed by a country’s laws or rules as per the ICC (International Chamber Of Commerce). Complete and accurate documentation and records are essential for an effective arbitration process.

  • Archive

    An archive is a set of records. It can be either structured or unstructured or both. It can also be hard copy or soft copy or both. See also Record

  • Archiving

    Archiving describes the process through which documents and records are collated into an archive. See also Digital Archiving

  • As-Built

    The As-Built drawing is intended to capture and accurately reflect what has actually been built. It is essential for the safe and efficient operation of the asset. During the construction phase and particularly towards the final stages of a project it is normal for changes to be made that see the asset constructed slightly differently from the high level drawings that have been reviewed and approved for construction. Sometimes the change is a minor one, for example the location of a switch or a light. Other times the change is significant, the location of a structural beam, a change in pump type or specification, the routing of high pressure piping etc A major change should really be captured on a newly revised and approved drawing but sometimes time and resourcing constraints prevent this and whilst the proposed change is approved by the client the documentation needs As-Building and bringing up to date. The As-Building process is normally performed through on-site surveys of systems and areas, with hard copy mark ups (red lines) being recorded and written down on the documents which are then passed back to the engineering office to update into revised documentation. As-building requirements can aso be recorded and enforced through the punchlist, commissioning comments, classification or regulatory comments… the inputs and quantities of as-built corrections can vary, along with the significance. It is not just conventional drawings that are As-Builded, important equipment manuals, SOP’s and registers (lists of valves, pumps, hoses, trolley beams, hoists) are also required to be brought up to date before the asset goes online / operational. The major As-Building exercise is performed by the constructing contractor prior to handover or delivery but the actual requirement and process continues throughout the lifespan of the asset. The owners MOC (Management of Change) process will typically require an approved updated as-built to reflect changes made once operational. The 3D Model should also be updated in conjunction with the documentation.

  • ASP

    ASP stands for Application Service Provider (not to be confused with Active Server Pages) which refers to the provision of an application through the internet that is hosted on the service providers server and not on the clients computers. This is now generally referred to as Cloud or Cloud Computing.

  • Attachment

    Documents which are sent or received as part of an e-mail are called an attachment. In the field of document control email attachments can sometimes be disruptive to the integrity of the Document Control system because they are basically circumventing the established means of distributing documents through Document Control (there is no official audit trail and it could well be the incorrect revision).

  • Audit

    An audit is a verification process which can be internal or external. An external audit is when a 3rd party, possibly a potential client or a certifying authority, visits the premises to perform an on-site verification against a pre-defined checklist of criteria. An internal audit is generally performed as an interim check to ensure that processes and procedures are being implemented and adhered to, and are meeting all specific performance and quality requirements. The audit might be against the document control system, the quality system or it might be company wide including financial / accounting. An audit should be scheduled around ongoing workscopes in order to minimize disruption. There should be an audit plan issued beforehand clearly recording what will be audited and by whom. After the audit is completed the findings report is issued and any findings, recommendations and non-conformances are logged in an audit close-out register that identifies responsible parties for closure and schedule.

  • Audit Assurance

    Audit assurance refers to an Audit-proof Document Management System which is able to ensure that a document cannot be altered or lost from the point of its upload or creation within the system.

  • Author

    The Author is the Document ‘owner’ who is responsible for the production or creation of that document.

  • Authoring

    Authoring refers to the creation and writing of a document.

  • Automatic Tagging

    Automatic tagging refers to the ability to predetermine key metadata entries into an EDMS (Electronic Document Management System) against a document according to set(s) of rules so that as much information as possible is automatically populated. For example a project identification code, a client reference or name, distribution or review / approval requirements, relevance for a specific certification package, retention code etc OCR scanning when used in conjunction with a bar code and automatic tagging can turn what used to be a process heavy and time consuming exercise into a quick and efficient operation.

  • Back Up

    Although the process of backing-up data or documentatican be applied to either hard or soft copy nowadays ‘Back Up’ most commonly refers to the process of copying electronic data from the main systems over to another medium or location in order to minimize the risk of data loss. Back Ups are typically performed daily, weekly and monthly and are scheduled to be run when the office(s) are closed so as to avoid disruption to the efficiency of the business operation. This can approach can sometimes be problematic for enterprises with a central Head Quarters in one location and satellite offices in other locations around the globe because the Back Up will almost always slow down connection speed for someone somewhere. Cloud computing is now being marketed as the best solution for ensuring zero data loss but there is still some reluctance in many companies to rely on this approach 100%…. watch this space.

  • Barcode

    A barcode is a series of black lines and spaces which encode data.

  • Baseline Documents

    Baseline Documents, also sometime known as ‘Parent’ documents are the documents that are used as the underlying reference and foundation to create a document. For example, a P&ID may reference the following as baseline documents; Construction Standards, Specifications, Arrangements, Layouts, Philosophies, interlinking P&ID’s and possibly certain vendor documents.

  • Baseline Revision Monitoring

    Baseline Revision Monitoring refers to the practise of monitoring and analysing documentation revisions to asses and notify the team of any documents that have been revised that may impact their own documents. This is an essential element of Document Control support service and forms part of the overall Engineering Change Management system.

  • Basic Engineering Documents

    BED = Basic Engineering Design (BED) Documents. These documents are issued at the very earliest stage of an engineering project. They can include conceptual studies, basic P&ID’s, basic system and equipment list and specifications, philosophies. A good quality BED set will form the foundation for the FEED and the detailed engineering that follows.

  • Batch Upload

    Batch Upload refers to the essential EDMS function of automating the process of uploading multiple documents into the document management system. An efficient batch upload process can significantly reduce the amount of document control man hours expended on processing a large amount of documents. For example the lead process engineer provides the document controller with 350 revised P&ID’s… even the very quickest document controller will require a few minutes per document…meaning it could take as long as 2 man days to process and issue. But with a batch upload process, once the document control quality and accuracy check is performed the upload process can be timed to start at the end of the working day and when the document controller arrives back in the office the next morning all documents are updated and ready to send by electronic transmittal.

  • BED

    The Basic Engineering Design (BED) documents are issued at the very earliest stage of an engineering project. A good quality BED set will form the foundation for the FEED and the detailed engineering that follows. The BED set can include conceptual studies, very basic system drawings, layouts, lists, specifications and philosophies. During BED phase there may be multiple design and specification options and cases under consideration which as the project progresses towards FEED will be narrowed down to the preferred or optimal option.

  • BFE

    The term BFE refers to Builder Furnished Equipment. Normally a construction project will consist of BFE and OFE (See OFE Owner Furnished Equipment) with the majority of equipment packages being BFE that is procured and installed by the Contractor (Builder). The challenge for the owners project management team is to work with the builder to ensure that the equipment procured meets contract and performance specifications and requirements. The challenge for the owners document control team is to ensure the vendor documentation is complete and fit for purpose, accompanied with all necessary certification and where required fully integrated into the builders engineering documents – for example in P&IDs.

  • Bill of Lading (BL / BoL)

    A Bill of Lading is a document issued by a freight carrier or an agent to a ship to officially record the list of goods received, confirmed loaded. The USA use of this terminology can refer to any type of transportation whereas in UK it is specifically for maritime.

  • Bill of Quantity (BoQ)

    A BoQ is normally compiled by a Quantity Surveyor and is used to list all parts, materials, labour for a construction project / manufacture of a product.

  • Bookmark

    Traditionally a slip of leather or material placed in a hard copy book to help the reader return to an exact place, this term has evolved along with modern technology to now also refers to a electronic place marker within a PDF document and also to save a website address for ease of return to same address later on. The most common usage is related to PDF files. Efficient bookmarks are not only useful they can be a requirement by some regulatory authorities.

  • BPM

    Business process management (BPM) describes the field of reviewing an organizations performance and optimizing the associated processes. An essential element of BPM is the philosophy that an organizations processes are valuable assets that must be thoroughly understood, recorded, managed and regularly reviewed. Document Control can often benefit from an experienced BPM review to ensure that it is fit for purpose and not too process heavy. Similarly an EDMS benefits from regular BPM review and validation.

  • Brownfield

    A brownfield project or development is one that is building on something that already exists. The other terminology used is Greenfield. See also Greenfield

  • Business Software

    Business software (or application) refers to computer based program(s) that are utilized used by business users to perform business functions. Typically these software / applications are used to increase productivity, to measure productivity and to perform business functions accurately. The extent to how successful these software and applications actually achieve these business purpose goals is debatable and as history records some companies have excelled and dominated – for example Microsoft.

  • CAD

    CAD means Computer Aided Design. It is the most commonly used software for creating engineering drawings. The file is normally in .DWG format.

  • Cancelled

    Cancelled refers to a document status whereby the document is obsolete and the document has been terminated and removed from public access. The record of the document itself must remain within the document control system or EDMS for audit purposes, along with the reason for cancellation and a record of the approval of cancellation.

  • Category

    Sometimes documentation is assigned a set of categories to assist with organization, management, retrieval and analysis requirements. Such categories are often company or project specific but are generally similar in their nature. For example, Manuals, Drawings, Databooks, Construction & Fabrication, Execution, Correspondence. For an example of a document hierarchy pyramid showing different groups and categories see free downloads.

  • Certificate

    A certificate is an official document attesting a fact. There is a shift towards usage and acceptance of electronic copies of certificates. See also CoC

  • Change Order

    A Change Order is an official change request. See also VO (Variation Order)

  • Check / Checker

    The document checker is simply the person(s) authorized to provide additional quality checks on the document prior to it being passed to Document Control to issue. It is normally another individual from the same department as the document origin but it may also sometimes include another discipline, perhaps quality or safety. A typical example might be a Process Flow Diagram created by a junior process engineer might be checked by another member of the process engineering team, then the process department head and finally by Document Control. For an example of a Document Control Checklist please see our free downloads.

  • Check In /Check Out

    Document Checking In and Checking Out function refers to the EDMS ability to allow multiple stakeholders to share workload and input into a document’s contents. For example on a project with engineers all working together on a set of deliverables in locations as far apart as Korea, UK, USA and Holland… a team of engineers can collaborate on the documents. An engineer in Korea can check a document out… work on it… check it back in.. and then an engineer in UK can work on the same document and so on and so forth. The only risk with this process is when an engineer forgets to check a document back in and then goes on vacation… in which case there is a risk the latest work might be lost when admin releases the document and restores to last revious saved version.

  • Clarification Request

    A clarification request is an officially issued and recorded enquiry with the purpose of removing uncertainty or lack of clarity. Such a request can be issued from client or contractor.

  • Classification Society

    A classification society is a non-governmental organization that exists to establish standards and validated assurance for the design, construction and performance of ships and offshore structures. Historically this was for ships and maritime industry but it has now expanded to include production platforms, windfarms, submarines and other offshore structures. The society will validate that construction is according to these standards and carry out periodical surveys when the asset in service in order to ensure compliance with the standards. There are over 50 classification societies in operation…the most commonly used ones within shipbuilding and oil & gas are ABS, DNV, BV A classification society can be contracted to:

    1. A Flag State in order to survey, classify and issue certificates on their behalf
    2. A shipyard or construction contractor to provide overall assurance and certification of the asset
    3. An owner in order to provide specific certification requirements (for example BOP CoC)
    4. A subcontractor / Equipment Vendor in order to certify the equipment ordered is in compliance with the contract requirements (for example a pump meets DNV-OS-E101)
    5. An organization or enterprise in order to validate a management system (for example quality ISO 9001 or environmental ISO 14001)
  • Cloud Computing

    Despite widespread distrust and lack of understanding of cloud computing in many industries it currently appears to be evolving into the globally dominant method of computing. It refers to internet based computing that shares processing resources and data. It is now in high demand because of the advantages of high computing power, high performance, scalability, accessibility and cheap cost of services. The cloud computing approach allows organizations to minimize the upfront costs that were historically associated with establishing a computer network (buying servers etc) and also places more of the maintenance load on the cloud computing provider instead of within the IT team. It enables the IT teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. Cloud providers typically use a “pay as you go” model.

  • CMS

    A Content Management System is a computer application that supports the creation and modification of digital content. A CMS is the foundation of an EDMS. It is typically web based and supports Web-based publishing, format management, history editing and version control, indexing, search, and retrieval. Most CMS also support management of web content (WCMS – Web Content Management Systems), web content includes text and embedded graphics, photos, video, audio, maps, and code (e.g., for applications) that displays content or interacts with the user. In the past a web site required a ‘Web Master’ to manage all content, now it is possible for an end user to edit and modify content through a (CMA) Content Management Application which handles the front end user interface. The CMA is supported by CDA (Content Delivery Application) which compiles information and updates the actual website. Another type of CMS is a Digital asset management system which is used to manage documents, movies, pictures, phone numbers and scientific data. CMSs can also be used for storing, controlling, revising, and publishing documentation.

  • CoC

    Certificate of Compliance / Conformance. A CoC is issued to state what standards, rules and codes the product / asset / organization equipment is in compliance with. It is generally considered to be of a lower value or importance than a class cert but when an equipment package is ordered without any class cert requirements the CoC becomes the top level form of certificate. There is an unfortunate trend within the oil and gas industry for a CoC to state something very generic like ‘this equipment has been designed, manufactured and tested in compliance with the requirements as set out in the purchase order’. Where ever possible the document controller should reject this CoC and request the manufacturer to provide a clear and bold statement of what the equipment actually complies and conforms to.

  • COLD

    COLD stands for Computer Output on Laserdisk but has now largely been replaced by ERM which is Enterprise Records Management. ERM forms part of the overall ECM (Enterprise Content Management) system. An ERM program assists with digitally archiving data in a compressed but easily retrievable format. Historically, with COLD a user would send a document to the COLD system (which is similar to sending a document for print) and then the COLD system would organize the document (now a record) for access, and compresses them for storage on drives, the drives being stored in a unit called a jukebox.

  • Comment

    Comments are the recorded feedback from the review / approval process of a document.

  • Comment Resolution Sheet

    Also known as Comment Response Sheet. Most commonly in excel or word format, this is a form used to record the document review and approval comments as part of the document review process. Whilst comments can be recorded on a hard copy or straight into the comments form of an EDMS it is also still common to see CRS sheets used.

  • Commissioning

    Commissioning generally refers to the process of assuring that all systems and their related sub-systems, parts or components are designed, installed, tested, operated and maintained according to various pertinent contractual, regulatory, governmental, industry standards (classification bodies), equipment manufacturer etc. requirements or specifications for the owner of the plant/asset or end-user clients. Commissioning phase normally takes place in the later or the final stages of a construction project. Prior to commissioning of these systems, pre-commissioning checks are performed. This is done first by individual equipment and subsystems and then as a whole system. For example, first a pump is commissioned, then a set of pumps that support the system, then once other related systems are ready too (power, automation, alarms and monitoring etc) the entire system is tested and commissioned.

  • Commissioning Procedure

    The Commissioning procedure is a document that lists and describes specific tests and checks that need to be performed related to the system to affirm that it meets the various requirements and/or specifications stated above. The commissioning procedure also specifies all safety prerequisites and checks that must be performed prior to commissioning, it lists related and applicable supporting documents like engineering documents (e.g. P&ID, schematics etc.) or manuals (e.g. testing, operational, user manuals etc.), it lists the subsystems and systems concerned and most importantly as mentioned earlier, it lists the tests and checks to be performed… providing text and signature boxes which are to be filled out by the constructor, client and also where required a classification society representative.

  • Commissioning Record

    The Commissioning Record is the completed Commissioning Procedure. It becomes a record as the testing is completed and the document is no longer live… its sole function is to provide an official record of how that particular system was tested and accepted, supported by signatures.

  • Completions

    Completions is critical phase of a construction project during which equipment, sub systems and systems are verified as being mechanically or electrically complete through an onsite joint inspection between the constructor and client. Using a pumpas an example. the completions process confirms that the pump is installed correctly, is complete and ready to begin pre-commissioning.

  • Compliance

    Compliance in its broadest term means conforming to a rule such as a specification, policy, standard or law. Specifically within the field of Document Control and in the Oil & Gas industry Compliance can be further broken down into the following:

    • IT Compliance
    • Corporate Compliance
    • Regulatory Compliance
    • Environmental Compliance
  • Confidential

    A document or parts of a document might be classed as confidential if there is sensitive information that only a limited number of personnel are allowed to access. For example, certain contractual and financial documents, and also HR documents. If sections of a document have information removed because of confidentiality the document is said to be ‘redacted’ (See R – Redacted). It is the responsibility of the document owner to clearly record and instruct Document Control of any confidentiality requirements and it is the responsibility of Document Control to facilitate and enforce such requirements.

  • Construction

    Construction is the process of building. Typically a shipyard construction project is LSTK – Lump Sum Turn Key. Meaning the asset is the property of the construction contractor until the very end of the project, when a ‘Lump Sum’ is paid by the client, thus facilitating change of ownership. Another type of shipyard construction project is ‘Time and Material’ where the client takes onboard a lot of the responsibilities that would normally befall the shipyard, and the client is billed for shipyard labour and material used.

  • Content

    Content is a general term used to describe the information contained within a document (it is also what is managed electronically by a ‘Content Management System’) See CMS

  • Contract

    A contract is a signed commercial agreement between multiple parties (at least 2) that records the nature of the agreement, the deliverables of the agreement, the sums of money that will be exchange (and for what and on what basis), the scheduled requirements, the applicable rules and laws to which the agreement will be applied and governed. It is often confidential and not widely accessible. It is wise to have a pdf scan of the hard copy signed contract, with full OCR and a password to open.

  • Controlled Document

    A Controlled Document is a uniquely numbered document subject to revisions (version control) which might impact on the quality of work and where absence of current information may lead to non-achievement of quality.

  • Correspondence

    Correspondence is communication data. It is normally unstructured but falls under the wider governance of IT / Security / Retention management. With the continued development, popularity and useage of mobile messenging tools and digital media sites for business communication it is increasingly challenging for organizations to manage and organize the vast amount of correspondence data that is generated. Some EDMS systems include an email system or interconnect with Outlook, which can help with the longer term records management requirements. Typically though, emails are simply backed up on servers to be held in safe storage for a specified amount of time. Some companies have introduced internal management practises and requirements of recording important telephone conversations, verbal conversations in person etc in order to enhance overall records management. See also Official Correspondence

  • CSV

    This is a file format. It means ‘Comma Separated Value’. It is often used to extract structured unformatted data from a database to format and then use in a spreadsheet.

  • Cut-off Date

    A cut-off date is a deadline. It can be applied to many different processes within an organization or a project but specifically within Document Control it is normally used to define and track against required scheduled document issue dates, the end of a document review / approval process or when a report must be issued. Sometimes also known as a ‘Deadline’.

  • Dashboard

    A dashboard is a useful feature of many EDMS and web based ECM systems that help provide key KPI information at a glance. A dashboard can be personalised to each individual user so that information relevant to that person’s department, project, open action items or newly received transmittals are clearly summarized and displayed to them as soon as they log in.

  • Data

    Data refers to information suitable for communication, interpretation and processing. It can be used for either hard or soft copy but within the field of document control / EDMS it is more commonly applied to electronic data controlled by a computer system. The term ‘Raw Data’ describes unprocessed information.

  • Database

    The strict definition of a database is a structured assembly of logically related data designed to be used in a software application. It is a collection of tables, queries, reports, views, and other database objects and is typically organized to model business process requirements in such a manner that it supports the requirement for and provision of information. More commonly the term Database is used to describe the DBMS (Database Management System) which is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, SAP HANA, and IBM DB2.

  • Databook

    A Databook (also known as MRB Manufacturing Record Boooks ) is a document or dossier that contains all the important records or how a particular component, item of equipment, skid or system has been designed, fabricated, tested, calibrated, commissioned. Two 100% identical pumps sat side by side in a warehouse can vary by as much as 20,000 USD in price just because one has been supplied with only basic databook records and the other has been design proven, fabrication verified and performance tested in accordance with a regulatory body certification standard. Some Databooks can run into 15,000 pages (eg a Derrick). Document Controllers should watch out for accuracy of certificates and serial numbers. The risk of gaps and errors in the Asset databooks increases significantly further away from delivery / handover date as equipment is changed, repaired and recertified.

  • DCN

    Design Change Note, also known as ECN (Engineering Change Notice) is an official document which records or authorizes a change to a specific design. The reasons for the change should also be recorded. An effective DCN should clearly record what needs to be changed, the reason for the change, supporting drawings, a list of documents that will be required to be updated to include the DCN, distribution / notification requirements of DCN, approval, schedule, regulatory / classification involvement.

  • DDM

    The DDM is the Document Distribution Matrix which is used to record and instruct distribution requirements for Controlled Documents. Typically the DDM requires senior management approval before it can be implemented. It is an extensive list of document types and records to whom a document should be distributed to for info, review, approval and in soft or hard copy format.

  • Deliverable

    A deliverable is the expected output of a series of processes and activities. Documentation deliverables are an agreed set of documents that form part of the overall contract delivery and completion protocol. It is normal for the documentation deliverables set to be less than the overall sum of the documents issued during a project life cycle because whilst certain documents may have been necessary to be issued during the engineering development phase, the information contained within those particular documents may be captured in the final As-Built of a different document, for example in the P&ID.

  • Detailed Engineering

    Detailed Engineering is a significant phase that follows BED (Basic Engineering) and FEED (Front End Engineering) . During Detailed Engineering the documentation is developed into detailed diagrams, drawings for all disciplines in order to support the overall project development. It is during Detailed Engineering that equipment is purchased, cost and schedule control is elevated, vendor documentation is processed, contractor documentation is expanded to the full suite of deliverables from all disciplines and departments and also start up procedure, commissioning procedures are developed.

  • Deviation Request

    A deviation request is similar to a change request / variation order.

  • DFC (Documents for Contract)

    The DFC is a register (and set) of all documents required (or items that need to be documented and evidenced in place) in order for the asset / project to meet contract requirements with the client. It might be similar to DFO but there can be critical differences that should be listed and tracked towards full closure.

  • DFO (Documentation for Operations)

    The DFO is a register (and set) of documents required (or items that need to be documented and evidenced in place) in order for the asset /project to go into operational phase. For further reading try Norsok Z-013

  • Digital Archiving

    Digital Archiving is the storage of hard copy documents in a digital format.

  • Discipline

    The term disciple is used to refer to separate groups or teams within an organization or a project, each discipline being ascribed to a particular function, profession or skill set. For example, within an engineering team there may be different disciplines like Safety, Civil, Process, Control Systems, Piping, Pipelines, Drilling, Subsea, Electrical, Software, Marine, Architectural, Weight, Structural, Environmental, HVAC.

  • Disposal

    Disposal refers to the process of deleting and or destroying data and documentation (or records). Sometimes this process is performed in accordance with predefined criteria like a Retention Code, other times the hard copy records are disposed of because all that is required for long term retention at the end of a project is already stored electronically

  • Distribute

    Document distribution refers to the Document Control process of sending or providing documents to recipients. This is generally executed in accordance with predefined instructions. See DDM

  • Distribution List

    A document distribution list is not normally included within engineering documentation but it can sometimes be seen in a corporate standard, policy or procedure to show that it has been distributed to the necessary senior figures within an organization or project.

  • DMS (Document Management System)

    DMS is the same as an EDMS Electronic Document Management System, a managed way of storing and sharing electronic documents.

  • DOC

    .doc is the file extension of a Microsoft word document.

  • Document Classification

    Although similar in nature to categorization and grouping this normally refers to the process by which document types are identified and split up into discrete documents within an EDMS.

  • Document Control

    Document Control is the general term used to describe the systems, processes, procedures and resources applied within an organization or project in order to ensure effective and consistent organization and control of information contained within data and documentation.

  • Document Control Number

    A Document Control Number, or more commonly simply referred to as Document Number, is a unique identifying number assigned to a unique Controlled Document. It is the number one essential element of the Document Control system and is normally shown in the footer of every page of the document. In some exceptional cases a document might have multiple document numbers, for example when a document is supplied by a 3rd party with a document number but then issued to the client by the builder with the builders document number, all the numbers would be recorded and tracked but there is still only one primary central document number that would serve as the primary identifying number – in this instance the builders document number. Document numbering requirements are normally defined in a ‘Document Numbering Specification’ or within the ‘Document Control Procedure’. For an example of a document numbering structure and some types please see free downloads.

  • Document Control Register

    See MDR Master Document Register

  • Document Control Software

    Document Control Software is the EDMS (or DMS)

  • Document Controller

    The Document Controller is the person(s) responsible for the execution of the Document Control System within an organization. The Document Controller has ownership of the system of control but not ownership of the Document content. The Document Controller is the custodian (sometimes referred to as the ‘Keeper of the Gate’) of the Document and the Document Control System.

  • Document Group

    Document Group is a top level description of a collection of documents that fall into a particular category or type or usage. Grouping documents does not necessarily refer to the physical gathering and placement of documents together but more often is assigned and used to help with organizing and reporting metadata and KPI. For example, for a new-build oil Rig document groups might be Engineering Drawings, Manuals, Databooks, Certification, Construction & Fabrication Records, Commissioning & Acceptance Records.

  • Document Type

    Document Type falls under Document Group as the next level down of categorization. For further information of document types please see our free downloads.

  • Drawing

    Within the context of Document Control the term Drawing generally refers to an engineering drawing. It is also sometimes mistakenly used to refer to all documentation which is not accurate. An Engineering drawing is a technical drawing that is the output of Engineering activity. It is more than a picture it is a method of communication of ideas, information and requirements from one person to another.

  • DRF (Document Review Form)

    A DRF is the same as a CRS Comment Response Sheet.

  • DWG

    .DWG is a drawing file used in CAD.

  • ECM

    Enterprise Content Management (ECM), from the best explanation from AIIM; a “dynamic combination of strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve and deliver… information that supports organizational processes throughout its entire lifecycle. Or put simply the “systematic collection and organization of information”. The term ECM is used a lot in relation to EDMS and CMS. AIIM provide a very good course on ECM, QuantumDocx highly recommend it. http://www.aiim.org/Education-Section/Quick-Studies/Quick-Study-ECM

  • EDMS

    Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) is the widely adopted and applied (to varying degrees of success!) process of creating, storing, processing, recording, distributing, accessing, securing, editing and archiving documentation electronically within a dedicated software or system. QuantumDocx actually supplies an excellent low cost SharePoint based EDMS solution and is also able to recommend other systems too. For further information click on ‘Contact us now’ at the bottom of this page!

  • Engineering

    According to Wikipedia “Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise”. The American Engineers’ Council for Professional Development describes “engineering” as: “The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behaviour under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation or safety to life and property”.

  • ERP

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a business management software system controlling all key areas of a business (e.g. SAP)

  • Excel

    Excel is an industry standard spreadsheet that forms part of the Microsoft office suite of programs. It is used to record, calculate, present and report information stored in cells structured in vertical columns and horizontal rows. There used to be certain limitations on older version of excel that made it less suitable for handling over 100,000 rows / columns but that has now been largely ironed out and the modern version of Excel is a very powerful tool. It is extremely useful for professionals working in Document Control and it is well worth learning how to utilize Excel to support day to day activities like Registers and Reports. N.B Because Excel is relatively easy to access for most people in the workplace there is a risk that unreliable or old information is quickly circulated to a wide audience which can be the enemy of the integrity of your Document Control system.

  • Exception

    An exception is an instance, a status or an activity that does not conform to the typical /accepted / approved norm. Within Document Control you may encounter an exception to an approved practise or procedure, or to an established or agreed design standard / criteria. It may also be evident in some forms of certification and in commissioning and acceptance records. It generally requires some form of authority or approval in order to be accepted…otherwise it is simply a non-conformance.

  • Expedite

    The term expedite is used to describe the hastening or speeding up of an activity or process. Within an engineering project there is such a significant requirement for quick and timely execution of certain activities that there are sometimes dedicated “Expeditors”, commonly in supply chain or documentation related areas.

  • FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests)

    FAT’s are a predefined set of verifications and tests that are intended to provide reasonable confirmation and assurance that the equipment / plant / component has been designed and built according to the purchase order specification requirements. FATs are performed by the manufacturer / vendor and generally witnessed by the client and sometimes a classification society representative. The same in principle is also executed at different stages / locations in SAT (Site Acceptance Test / HAT Harbour Acceptance Test / CAT Customer Acceptance Test.

  • FEED (Front End Engineering & Design)

    FEED follows Basic Engineering and precedes Detailed Design and Engineering. It is during FEED that preliminary P&ID’s are issued, basic layouts and arrangement drawings, MTO’s (material take off’s), isometrics, equipment lists, equipment specifications and datasheets, I/O (Input / Output), Control System, Process (PFD / P&ID), HVAC, Power, Piping, Electrical, Mechanical…all to a sufficiently developed engineering packaged level in order to establish a basic schedule and cost estimate, and sufficiently developed in order for the client to make a decision on whether to proceed to execute the construction project and detailed engineering

  • Field

    The term field is used in relation to databases, it can be interpreted as a column of data.

  • File Naming

    It is common for a Document Controller to work to specific requirements regarding enforcing and applying electronic file naming. This is often known as ‘File Naming Convention’. For some examples of file naming please see our free downloads.

  • Filing Index

    A filing index is a structure and classification for how to store files. It less common now that EDMS systems help manage the majority of controlled data and documentation within organizations and projects but it is still worth knowing about especially for organising hard copy sets and folders on servers. Sometimes also known as a ‘Filing Plan’. For an example of a Filing Index please see our free downloads.

  • Fixed Form

    A form which only allows the user to write data in certain defined areas (e.g. a document profile form / a technical query form / a request for issue form / a bank account application form.

  • Footer

    A footer is located at the bottom of a controlled document and normally features critical metadata such as document number, document revision, page x of pages, date of issue.

  • FTS (Full Text Search)

    A full text search function within an EDMS expands beyond searching through the fields of metadata and actually searches the contents of the documents as well. Some EDMS systems have a search function that automatically defaults to FTS which can sometimes actually make locating the necessary document more troublesome. For example, if an engineer wants to locate a manual for a pump logic would suggest searching for ‘doc type’ manual and ‘key word’ pump…but with FTS the results list could run to over 1000 documents that all contain the key word – pump. QuantumDocx recommends a default simple search that can then be expanded to FTS as and when required.

  • Governance

    Large organizations and projects sometimes use the word governance to refer to the collection of top level laws, rules, codes, standards and beliefs that are applied and enforced either as overarching all-encompassing structures for the entire company / project (Company Goals) or in isolation towards a specific requirement (IT Governance). Governance is achieved through the application of processes, systems and procedures and is regularly and continuously monitored, verified and amended as required in order to maintain integrity and progress.

  • Guideline

    A guideline is a type of instruction (normally in written form) that advises how something should be done, it is not normally a rigid and inflexible requirement it is more often a recommended practice that still allows some interpretation, discretion or leeway in its use. For example, there may be a Document Control guideline on the management of As-Builts or on project completion and close down…whilst the Document Controller might not have to comply with the guideline as per any policy it is recommended to, unless there are specific reasons to modify the approach for that particular project, in which case the onus will be on the Document Controller to ensure best practise.

  • Hard Copy

    Hard Copy means paper copy. In Data and Documentation Management it generally refers to computer output printed on paper that can be read without requiring any kind of device.

  • HAZID (Hazard Identification)

    Similar to HAZOP, a HAZID is a more general Risk Analysis. For further reading, visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazard_analysis

  • HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study)

    HAZOP is a thorough examination of a complex operational process (or collection of processes) against a design in order to clearly identify and assess potential risks to personnel, equipment or the environment that might not otherwise have been found. Any issues that are identified are recorded and then discussed and further processed through Risk Analyses and Studies, following which suitable responses and actions recorded and or executed, sometimes a design change, sometimes an additional safety control measure. The HAZOP is carried out by a suitably experienced multi-disciplinary team in a series of meetings that aim to stimulate the imagination of participants to identify potential hazards and operability problems. Standardised guide word prompts are used in order to help generate the most complete and productive hazard review sessions. For further reading, visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazard_and_operability_study

  • Header

    A document header is much the same as a document footer except that it is located at the top of the document.

  • Hold

    A document can sometimes be issued for implementation with a list of ‘holds’ which might record areas where it differs from the normal overarching governing policies and procedures that would define it, or where it is anticipated that a revision or event will impact a key area of the document in the near future.

  • ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition)

    ICR is often used to describe software that is used to recognise and capture handwriting from scanned image.

  • IDC (Interdisciplinary Check)

    IDC is a vital process for the development of an engineering drawing or document in a multi-disciplinary organization. The documentation deliverables from each separate department must be closely coordinated with other departments to make sure that everyone remains informed of design development. The IDC process helps minimize the risk of costly errors manifesting during construction phase and provides opportunity for requisitions and registers. It also keeps Construction updated on the design, provides Commissioning with the information required to start generating Commissioning Procedures and helps the Operations and Maintenance teams start to plan their responsibilities and requirements. Basic IDC requirements are recorded in the approved DDM (Document Distribution Matrix) and then any additional distribution requirements can be added during the request for issue process. IDC is applicable during all phases of a document’s development and use including conceptual, FEED, construction & detailed engineering, commissioning, as-building and operational phases.

  • IFA (Issued for Approval)

    A document that has been issued for approval has normally already been issued for IDC and Review and is considered to be suitably developed and acceptable that it is submitted for approval. It is an open status until the response is received, either approved, or not approved, sometimes with comments and rarely (hopefully) rejected.

  • IFC (Issued for Construction)

    Typically, a drawing issued IFC is a high level document with overall assembly and construction notes. It does not go down into shop fabrication details unless absolutely necessary.

  • IFI (Issued for Implementation)

    Also sometimes known as ‘Íssued for Use’ the document that has been issued for with a clear requirement that all who receive and read must take note and act upon the contents of the document accordingly, it is similar to IFI but carries a greater loading and weight to it.

  • IFI (Issued for Information)

    A document that has been issued for information requires no review or approval, only to be read and understood and where necessary acted upon.

  • IFQ (Issued for Quotation)

    A document that has been issued for quotation records that it is not to be used for any other purposes than to facilitate the generation of a quotation. It is a protective status.

  • IFR (Issued for Review)

    A document that has been issued for review requires a response within a predefined time frame, it is an open status that will not be closed until all review comments are returned from the reviewing parties.

  • IFT (Issued for Tender)

    A document that has been issued for tender records that it is not to be used for any other purposes than to facilitate the generation of a tender package. It is a protective status.

  • IM (Information Management)

    IM is the collection and management of information (both electronic and paper copy / physical) from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. Data and Document Control, Enterprise Content Management, Electronic Document Management Systems and Content Management Systems all play significant parts in the application of Information Management.

  • Importing

    Within Document Control the term ‘importing’ is most widely used when describing the process of inserting structured metadata (an import form) and / or files ( controlled documents) into an EDMS as part of a batch importation.

  • IMS (Integrated Master Schedule)

    The IMS is the top level and most detailed time based schedule containing the networked, detailed tasks necessary to ensure successful program/contract execution.

  • Information Hiding

    Information Hiding is a practise followed in computer software programming in which elements of a programme which are most likely to be changed are segregated from the rest of the system in order to protect and minimize the risk of damage to the overall functionality if a design change is implemented.

  • Inspection

    An inspection is an examination in regard to an object or an activity that measures, tests and gauges characteristics against predefined requirements and standards. The results of an inspection a generally recorded on a printed form or sometimes nowadays electronically into a form. The inspection results are graded and quantifiable to help record key KPI information like the extent to which the inspection requirements are met and any outstanding issues and items that must be addressed. Inspection activities are normally governed by inspection procedures in order to ensure consistency of the inspection checking process. There are many different types of inspections performed during a construction project, some examples;

    1. Visual
    2. Fit-Up
    3. Welding
    4. Back Gouging
    5. vacuum test
    6. Pneumatic Test
    7. Hydrodynamic
    8. Alignment
    9. Dimensional
    10. Load-Test
    11. Ultra-Sonic
    12. Non-Destructive
  • Inspection Certificate

    Unlike an ‘inspection report’ of which there are many 1000’s generated using a project lifespan an inspection certificate is a higher level record. It is normally generated as the output record of an inspection involving the involvement and attendance of a specialist or a surveyor / representative from the client and or regulatory body / classification society /coastal authority etc.

  • Inspection Report

    An inspection report is the output of the inspection process.

  • Instruction

    An instruction provides detailed information advising how something should be done. Sometimes known as a ‘Work Instruction’ or found within a procedure.

  • Interconnect

    This is sometimes used to describe and measure the ability of 2 or more different systems and platforms to work in conjunction with each other towards are desired outcome. For example, the ability of an EDMS to interconnect with Microsoft office programs.

  • IOM (Installation, Operation & Maintenance)

    IOM stands for Installation, Operation & Maintenance Manual. A good quality and accurate IOM is essential for the safe and efficient operation of the asset. Typically there is an IOM for each equipment package.

  • IRN (Inspection Release Note)

    An IRN is sometimes issued by a 3rd party or classification society representative as a record of an equipment of system having passed inspection.

  • ITP (Inspection Test Protocol/Programme)

    Also sometimes referred to Inspection Test Agreement the ITP forms the top level contractual agreement that defines the types of inspection, test, acceptance and approval – charted against the different phases and milestones of the project. It will also record whether the owner, client and class (or other regulatory bodies) should attend and whether there are any hold points.

  • ITT (Invitation to Tender)

    Invitation to Tender describes the process of submitting a collection of documents as a Tender Package to potential bidders. The documents would have been Issued for Tender.

  • KM (Knowledge Management)

    KM is the management of an organization or project’s knowledge for the purpose of meeting requirements and also creating or maintaining core values, principles and behaviour. At its root lies processes, strategies, systems, records and documents, structured and unstructured data. KM is an expansive pool of information that when pulled together helps sustain and enhance the storage, assessment, sharing, refinement, and creation of knowledge.

  • KPI (Key Performance Indicator)

    It is widely used throughout organizations and projects at all levels and by all departments. For Document Control pretty much any kind of information can become a KPI depending upon what performance needs monitoring and for what purpose. For example at the earliest stages of a project, KPI’s might be focused on the overall amount of preliminary documentation that has been issued, during detailed engineering KPI’s might shift towards focusing on the efficiency of the review cycle and comments closures in new revisions, and towards the end of a project KPI’s might be used to monitor overall progress of As-building, receiving of signed closed commissioning records, and receiving status of vendor documentation and certification.

  • LCI (Life Cycle Information)

    Life Cycle Information, Document Life Cycle

  • LD (Late Delivery)

    An LD is levied against a contractor or builder as a penalty for late delivery as measured against the contract schedule. It is generally a fiscal charge or penalty which is charged per day for a maximum number of days (perhaps 50 or 100) before another stronger form of penalty might be enforced as per the contract.

  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

    See Active Directory

  • LMS (Learning Management System)

    A LMS is a system that facilitates education and training. There are many online LMS available nowadays. For example www.schoolkeep.com and tracelearningsolutions.com

  • Lock

    Locking a document is the process of establishing the necessary security measures and controls to prevent it from being edited or changed.

  • Look Ahead

    A look ahead is exactly that, a summary or description of events, activities or deliverables that are expected or scheduled in the future 2 to 4 weeks.

  • MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface)

    It is both a messaging architecture and also a component object model API for Microsoft that allows client programs to become email messaging enabled.

  • Master Document List

    See MDR

  • MDR (Master Document Register)

    The MDR is a list of controlled documents, normally in excel format but also now accessed within the EDMS itself. For an example of a MDR please see free downloads.

  • MetaData

    In Document Control terms Metadata refers to extra information about the document itself that helps categorize the document and its content to thus facilitate people identify and find it (e.g. Project Number / Asset Name, Originating Company / Department, Equipment or System, Document Type, Document Title, Number, Revision, Status, Review Code).

  • Milestone

    Like KPI, the term milestone is widely used in organizations and projects. It refers to a major or significant stage or event and is often used.

  • MOC (Management of Change)

    MOC is a change control process used to ensure that change is safely and effectively managed within an organization or project. Before the change can take place a thorough review of the reasons, requirements, impacts and follow ups are defined, normally on a form with the involvement of key individuals who are likely to have a high level of expertise in the concerned area(s).

  • Modification

    A modification is a change. Within the field of Document Control modifications are controlled by the careful management of the release of native files for revision and by the establishment of necessary security levels to ensure the majority of the team can only access read-only files. Modifications to a document are normally summarised within a table towards the beginning of the document. This is also sometimes known as a ‘Revision History Table’. For an example please see free downloads

  • MTO (Material Take Off)

    MTO is a list of materials used in engineering and construction to record the quantities and types of materials required in order to build the necessary item. As well as for materials provision the MTO is used for costing and weight forecasts.

  • N.B. (Note Bene)

    This is a latin term used to place emphasis on something that should be noted and well understood. It means ‘take note’ or ‘note well’.

  • Native

    Native refers to an original file format that is used to create a document that is published / issued (called a native file or native file format’). For example, the native file format for most documents issued as a PDF are either Microsoft Word or Excel, and for drawings the most common native file format is CAD. Careful management of storage ad access of native files is required in order to prevent unofficial and unsanctioned versions of controlled documents entering circulation. On a project the native file formats of the As-Built set should be very carefully checked in order to be confident that the native file is actually the correct version that matches the latest final As-Built PDF and hard copy sets.

  • NCR (Non-Conformance Report)

    A NCR is an official record of a failure to comply with or meet the contract standards as defined in the ITP (See I – ITP) and Quality Plan (See Q – Quality Plan). Depending upon the nature and scale of the organization or project a NCR might be issued for each and every failure identified or it might be reserved for identifying a systemic failure that sees multiple failures of a similar kind. The NCR report should be an unambiguous, defensible and concise description of the problem so that corrective action can be initiated. NCR’s are also sometimes issued as the most serious failures identified during an audit.

  • NDA

    Serves as a binding agreement between two parties (generally a company and an individual) to ensure that confidential and proprietary information is not shared or used for purposes other than what the information has been provided for. It is recommended required to be signed and in place before any documentation is officially issued to external parties through Doc Control (N.B keep in mind that any overarching confidentiality agreements between your own company and another company will only cover direct employees and any contractors working for a company will need to be covered under a separate NDA).

  • Notification

    A notification is an update distributed to the organization or project team. Typically, either sent out as an email from Document Control or perhaps as an automated message from an EDMS. For example, a Document Controller might send a notification to the team of the documents received from vendors that day or of a document issued for review. A notification can also sometimes be used as a method of warning or enforcement. For example, a Document Controller might send a notification to the team reminding them not to send copies of documentation via email to any external parties and that it must be channelled through the Document Control system.

  • OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

    The method by which software can read characters from a scanned paper document.

  • ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)

    ODBC is a widely used standard API software used for accessing a database. See API

  • OFE (Owner Furnished Equipment)

    OFE refers to equipment that is supplied by the owner (contract client) or the asset client (the client’s client). For example, whilst a ship being built under a new-build contract will have 95% of the equipment engineered, procured, installed and commissioned by the shipyard (See B – BFE), a small amount of specialist equipment may sometimes be supplied by the owner or the owner’s client because. This is normally because the equipment is extremely specialist and is required for the work the asset will perform.

  • Office

    Microsoft office is a suite of business process software that includes Access (database), Excel (Spreadsheet), Word (Word processing publishing), PowerPoint (presentations), Outlook (Email and Calendar), OneNote (personal information organizer)

  • Office 365

    Microsoft Office 365 is the latest vision from Microsoft for accessing and using the office programs. The emphasis of office 365 is versatility and connectivity through the majority of the systems and files being stored primarily online.

  • OMR (Optical Mark Recognition)

    OMR (in the context of folding inserting machines) – Optical Mark Recognition, in simple terms little black marks down the edges of documents which provide the means by which a folding & inserting machine can automatically fill an envelope. OMR (in the context of form recognition) – Optical Mark Recognition is software used to read information from structured forms (Checkboxes, non-framed checkboxes and bubbles).

  • OneNote

    OneNote is a Microsoft personal information management tool that is designed to function as an electronic notebook. It is possible to store a wide range of data and documents types within OneNote for example, textual, images, audio and video. OneNote collects and organizes this information and also makes it possible to share with other users. Microsoft 365 also offers similar functionality. See Office 365

  • Open Source

    Open source is a description for any program where the source code is made freely available to other users to use or modify. There are specific criteria that must be met according to the ‘open software definition’ – free redistribution, availability of source code, derived works, source code integrity, zero discrimination against people, zero restrictions against using the code for any endeavours, no additional licenses required, license rights attached to the program must not be attached to any product, zero restriction against other software, license must not specify any particular software or technology.

  • Optimize

    A document is said to have been optimized if it has been OCR scanned and minimized file size in as much as the efficiency of the content search is a good as it can get and the reduced file size will ensure as quick a download or open as possible.

  • Output

    An output is the expected result of a process or event. Within the field of Document Control output management’ concerns optimizing and improving the way documentation is created and delivered.

  • Overdue

    Documentation is overdue when it is late for a particular milestone or event, possible for issue or for returned comments. Overdue documentation is often summarized in a weekly Document Control report.

  • P&ID

    Process & Instrumentation Diagram (in some sectors the acronym P&ID can mean PIPING & instrumentation Diagram, for example in drilling rigs and ships).

  • Package

    The term package denotes a collection or grouping of items. Within Document Control it can sometimes be used to describe a documentation set. In an engineering construction project the term package can also be used to describe a piece of equipment or a system, meaning a finished product that is suitable for installation and operation. This is also sometimes known as a skid when delivered in a self-contained and transportable unit like a reinforced and secure metal frame or container.

  • Payment Gateway

    This is an e-commerce application service provider service that authorises payments for e-businesses or online retailers (e.g. PayPal or Braintree).

  • PCS (Project Consultancy Services)

    A PCS contract is used to describe a contract agreement between a service provider and a client. A PCS contract, as the term implies, supplies a broad range of project management support and expertise and might be applied to multiple ongoing client projects.

  • PDDM (Project Data and Document Management)

    PDDM is sometimes used as a collective term to describe the processes, systems, work scopes and responsibilities that full under a Document Controller.

  • PDF (Portable Document Format)

    PDF has become the dominant and most widely accepted standard for creating and publishing documents. There are commonly 2 kids of pdf document that we encounter in Document Control, a PDF file that has been converted to PDF from the native file format and a PDF that is paper copy scanned to PDF. See Adobe

  • PEP (Project Execution Plan)

    See PMP

  • PMP (Project Management Plan)

    There is an ongoing discussion on the differences if any between a Project Management Plan and a Project Execution Plan (PEP). For the purposes of this glossary both PEP and PMP to varying degrees define the overarching standards, policies and procedures that must followed, along with the scheduled requirements, milestones and deliverables, the compliance, the budgetary and financial details. In some instances it is possible that a PMP can fall under the PEP as providing more in depth and detailed instructions and references on how the project requirements will be performed for that particular project. For example, a PEP may have been issued to cover all project management services being provided under one contract but then a separate PMP would be issued for each separate project under the overall project services contract and would be more detailed and specific towards that particular project. It is also possible that whilst the PEP is a single comprehensive document the PMP might consist of a collection of separate project and departmental management plans.

  • PMP (Project Management Plan)

    There is an ongoing discussion on the differences if any between a Project Management Plan and a Project Execution Plan (PEP). For the purposes of this glossary both PEP and PMP to varying degrees define the overarching standards, policies and procedures that must followed, along with the scheduled requirements, milestones and deliverables, the compliance, the budgetary and financial details. In some instances it is possible that a PMP can fall under the PEP as providing more in depth and detailed instructions and references on how the project requirements will be performed for that particular project. For example, a PEP may have been issued to cover all project management services being provided under one contract but then a separate PMP would be issued for each separate project under the overall project services contract and would be more detailed and specific towards that particular project. It is also possible that whilst the PEP is a single comprehensive document the PMP might consist of a collection of separate project and departmental management plans.

  • PMT (Project Management Team)

    The PMT is a common name given to a collection of managers and leads that each represent a department or discipline within a project.

  • POP3

    POP3 is email mailbox office protocol used to download email from an email server.

  • Portal

    Is an access point web page, there are many different kinds of portals (external visitor / vendor / knowledge / safety alert) but they can all be considered as landing pages.

  • Procedure

    A procedure is a document that describes and defines how a process or an action is to be performed. The most important procedures for a Document Controller are normally the Quality Procedure and the Document Control Procedure.

  • Process

    A process is a series or sequence of interdependent and sometimes concurrent actions and procedures which require some kind of resource (normally time, money, people) in order to turn input(s) (normally material, information) into output (normally or rather hopefully the required goal /outcome).

  • Process Flow Chart

    A process flow chart is a pictorial illustration that clearly shows the separate steps of a process in sequential order. It can also show key information required for the execution of that process like decision points, persons or departments involved, possibly a schedule or time, and actions to be taken depending on different results,. A process flow char is a very general and widely used tool within organizations and projects. It is not to be confused with a PFD which is an engineering document. See PFD

  • Progress Monitoring

    Progress monitoring is the ongoing process of recording and assessing KPI information in order to establish whether or not schedule and deliverable targets are being met.

  • Progress Report

    A progress report is the output of progress monitoring. Organization or project wide progress reports are normally officially issued through Document Control to help provide a clear audit trail of the latest KPI’s being provided to all stakeholders. A departmental progress report might not be issued through Document Control but such reports are still very important and valuable in order to keep all team members updated on progress and areas of delay / concern.

  • Project

    A project can be defined as something undertaken to produce or create a product, service or a result. It is a special endeavour in as much as it is not a routine exercise and it is also something that is not permanent because it has a defined beginning and end. It is normally also something that requires a significant amount of resourcing in time, money and people.

  • Punch List

    A project punch list is a list of items which must be replaced, repaired or completed in accordance with the contract requirements. It is most often in excel format but can also be managed from within a database. Whilst it is possible that a construction project will see many 1000’s or even tens of 1000’s of punch items recorded, classification of the punch items help provide a clearer understanding of the seriousness and gravity of the items recorded. For example, an ‘Á’ punch item is commonly the most serious – implying inoperability of the entire system or recording a serious safety risk that must be addressed before activities with that and any other interconnecting systems can proceed. A ‘B’ punch item might still be serious but would not impeded further progress and can be addressed concurrently with other activities. A ‘C’ punch item might be a less serious matter like a correction of a name plate or an equipment tag. Normally all open punch items must be addressed before project completion.

  • QA (Quality Assurance)

    QA is the method of defining the characteristics and processes that will ensure that the requirements or expectations are met.

  • QAP (Quality Assurance Plan)

    The Quality Assurance Plan is a top level outline of how an enterprise or project will meet the quality assurance goalsQuality Check – A quality check is the action of verification in accordance with the Quality Control checklist(s). The difference between QA and QC is that QA is ‘before’ in order to ensure and QC is ‘after’ in order to verify.

  • QC (Quality Control)

    QC is the method of checking that the output of the characteristics and processes defined in QA do indeed meet the necessary requirements or expectations.

  • QMH (Quality Management Handbook)

    A QMH is a distilled document sometimes in the form of a pocket book that contains all the key information necessary to help all stakeholders perform work in accordance with the quality management requirements.

  • QMS (Quality Management System)

    QMS is a term used to describe the entire quality process and its supporting documents, systems and resources. It is a company’s QMS that is normally certified as being in accordance with ISO 9001.

  • Quality

    Quality is the measurement of a particular level of excellence and or performance. Within Document Control we encounter quality through ISO 9001 which describes quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics meets a requirement or expectation that is stated, implied or obligatory.

  • Recipient

    In Document Control terms the recipient is the person (or group / company / department) that receives a document.

  • Record

    A Record is a document that has passed from live status of ‘to do’ or ‘being done’ to something that is historical evidence and cannot be changed. Requirements for records management are also defined in ISO 9001.

  • Redact

    Redaction refers to the removal of selected confidential information from a document before it is released to the public.

  • Redline / Redlining

    The process of redlining is to mark-up corrections, comments and errors onto a hard copy drawing or document, typically using red ink.

  • Register

    A register is a list. See MDR

  • Report

    A report is a presentation created with the purpose of portraying information or recounting an event in an easily or widely accessible way. Reports can be found as written, spoken, televised, film, streamed. Specifically, within Document Control, it is common to encounter a wide range of reports for different purposes. For example, there might be a weekly HSE report, a monthly project report, monthly budget report, a weekly Document Control report. For an example of a Document Control report please see free downloads (N.B – as stated under K – KPI, pretty much any kind of data or event can be reported in a Document Control report if required).

  • Resolution

    Resolution is a grading of level of quality, clarity and detail of an image. The higher the resolution the better quality the image. In Document Control whilst clarity is the most important requirement in terms of functionality a balance has to be found which keeps file size as low as possible too.

  • Retention

    Retention refers to the practise of keeping or maintaining records and forms part of the overall RMS (Records Management System).

  • Retention Code

    The Retention Code is a policy that defines what types of records and data must be retained, in what format and for how long. Establishing a simple and effective Retention Code is critical for an organization to ensure that it meets all regulatory requirements record keeping, for example the Sarbanes-Oxley act.

  • Return Code

    See Approval Code

  • Review

    The review process is a structured and auditable assessment of a controlled document (or documents). The output of the review process is normally either approval or comments which will lead to a document modification, revision and the initiation of another review process by Document Control.

  • Revision

    Revision is a record of the version of a document that has been officially issued. It is normally tied to an issue date, an issue status. It is also the action or process of modifying a document to the next version – to revise a document. Commonly called a ‘rev’ or to ‘rev’ a document up. Revision control is enforced by the Document Controller and the Document Control system. Good revision control is an essential element of ISO 9001 Quality Management requirements.

  • Revision History

    Revision history is recorded either within the document itself in a revision history table or separately within a register or the EDMS. It provides a detailed record of the modifications made to the document at each officially issued revision.

  • RFC (Release for construction)

    RFC is an issued status advising that the documentation has been issued to be used for the purposes of construction.

  • RFF (Release for Fabrication)

    RFF is an issued status advising that the documentation has been issued as approved to be used for the purposes of fabrication.

  • RFI (Request for Information)

    This is the more widely used and commonly understood definition of RFI, it refers to an official request for information.

  • RFI (Request for Issue)

    This refers to the practise of submitting document(s) to Document Control for issue. There might be a specific RFI folder into which the team drop documents for issue. There may also be a RFI form to be completed and submitted to Document Control as part of the process.

  • RFQ (Request for Quote)

    An initial contact to a supplier or contractor specifying what is required and asking for preliminary cost and delivery information.

  • RMS (Records Management System)

    A Records Management system supports the management of records for an organization or project throughout the records lifecycle. Such activities included in this process (and system) are the control of the creation, maintenance, and destruction of the records, along with a clear and documented understanding of how data and document management integrates with records management both in policy and system.

  • ROI (Return on Investment)

    ROI is a measurement of performance or benefit following an investiture of some kind, normally financial but it can also be resourcing and time. Within Document Control ROI might be reported against a particular project for example OCR scanning all old hard copy records to PDF, or rolling out a new EDMS.

  • SAP (Systems, Applications and Products)

    SAP s one of the world’s largest enterprise software company and the world’s fourth-largest software supplier. It has been adopted to support enterprise management for an entire organization or for specific business process areas like procurement, maintenance, and sometimes as an EDMS.

  • Sarbanes-Oxley

    The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 establishes the Corporate Responsibility, Auditing and Accounting requirements for all U.S. public company boards, management and public accounting firms. A large part of the Act is also applicable to smaller and privately held companies, for example the outlaw of the wilful destruction of evidence to impede a Federal investigation.Many people associate the Act with the legislative aftermath of the corporate accounting scandal of the company Enron for further reading see www.thebalance.com/sarbanes-oxley-act-and-the-enron-scandal-393497 . It is one of the top level governing laws that we must consider when establishing records management requirements.

  • Scope

    The term scope is used to define and document a list of goals, tasks, costs, deadlines and deliverables.

  • SDRL (Supplier Document (or Data) Requirements List)

    The SDRL is a form used to specify and facilitate a clear and detailed agreement between a client and a vendor on the documentation deliverables. N.B whilst most SDRL’s are similar there is no hard and fast rule about what should be listed and can be tailored for each specific purpose. For an example of SDRL please see free downloads.

  • Security

    Document Security is applicable to both hard copy and soft copy but in today’s world of electronic data and document management it is more commonly used to defines the access level for electronic documentation, specifying who is able to read, edit or delete a document. Security levels are normally assigned by disciplines and departments with the majority of access being read only for most users.

  • Semantic Search

    A semantic search function is a complex and intelligent way of attempting to best locate and provide search results based off of a number of separate factors like the context of the search criteria entered, location, intent, variation of words, synonyms and natural languages and slang. Search engines like Google and Bing use semantic search elements. A natural development will be to witness this intelligent, hyper-personalised and adaptable technology eventually weave its way into EDMS systems.

  • Semi-structured Forms

    A form with a logical structure but data varies from form to form (e.g. an invoice).

  • SharePoint

    Microsoft development platform to create internal or external websites for sharing information. SharePoint is provided with most common EDMS functions and now forms the foundation of many effective information management, collaboration and EDMS solutions available on the market.

  • Shop Drawing

    A shop Drawing is a fabrication or workshop drawing that is used to facilitate fabrication using the drawings IFC (Issued for Construction). They typically include fabrication notes, inspection and testing details / requirements. They show details of cut out parts, welding, joining, holes, strengthening details and also cut out sections with sub-assemblies and main assembly details.

  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

    SMTP is a widely used internet protocol for facilitating email transmissions. It is worth noting that although email systems like gmail, yahoo, outlook etc may use their own protocols within their own mail servers all use SMTP when sending or receiving email from outside their own systems, on this basis it is widely recognized as the de facto global standard protocol for email.

  • Soft Copy

    Soft Copy refers to electronic or digital copy of a document.

  • SQL (Structured Query Language)

    SQL is a type of code used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system.

  • Squad Check

    Squad Check is sometimes used to describe the IDC (Interdisciplinary Check) process for multiple person review of a Controlled Document. It is executed either as defined by the DDM (Document Distribution Matrix) or as requested by the Project Manager. There may sometimes be a dedicated Squad Check room or area where these documents are reviewed.

  • Standard

    A standard is a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics in order to ensure that a process, or a product or a service is executed consistently and to the required levelStamp – A Document Control stamp is sometimes used to mark a hard copy document with a clear notification warning or status. For example, most Document Controllers will have the following stamps in their armoury – ‘Controlled Copy’, ‘Uncontrolled Copy’, ‘Draft’, ‘For Information Only’ and ‘Confidential’. Stamps can also be applied to electronic copies of documents through the use of a watermark. See Watermark

  • Status

    The term status is used a lot within organizations and projects and can be interpreted as meaning an indication of the condition or level of completion of something. Within Document Control the term status is used to denote the purpose of a documents creation (or revision) and issue, for example a document status might be IFA Issued for Approval, IFR Issued for Review or IFT Issued for Tender.

  • Structured Data

    Structured data is a generic term for information that is either contained in a database (or some other type of data structure) or follows a predefined manner of organization which facilitates effective usage, processing and analysis.

  • Superseded

    A superseded document is an old revision of a Controlled Document that has been replaced by the issue of a newer version, it should not be confused with a Cancelled Document which has been revoked and taken out of circulation.

  • TDC (Technical Document Control)

    TDC refers to the application of Document Control in a Technical field, for example Engineering, Pharmaceuticals, Transportation, Medicine. Whilst TDC uses the same basic principles applied to all forms of Document Control, the better the individuals understanding of the industry they work in then the more extensive they are able to support with documentation control.

  • Technical Evaluation

    Tests or studies conducted to investigate and determine the technical suitability of an equipment, material, product, process, or system for the intended objectives.

  • Template

    A document or drawing template is normally provided and enforced by Document Control in order to ensure consistency in document production. A template cannot be edited and is therefore an effective way of ensuring documents being created meet the necessary project quality requirements. It is common for a template for be company, project and client specific.

  • TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)

    TIFF is a flexible image and data format that is popular with people working in media and publishing.

  • TQ (Technical Query)

    A TQ is the means through which a technical matter or request for information is officially communicated between client and contractor.

  • Transmittal

    A transmittal is a Document Control tool for officially recording the sending of information, the Transmittal records all significant metadata and details – From, To, Description, Issued For, Time Frame requirements, All other recipients, Electronic Format, Number of Copies etc Transmittals used to be hard copy forms filled out by hand or typed in and then printed, signed and faxed or scanned to the recipient via email. Nowadays it is common to see a Transmittal being executed as a workflow within an EDMS. Either hard copy or electronically issued a Transmittal serves as a record of an exchange of documentation and records that it has been acknowledged and received by the recipient.

  • Uncontrolled Document

    Uncontrolled data and documentation are not subject to document control numbering or revision control. Working copies and drafts are considered uncontrolled as they are not officially issued. Uncontrolled status is also used to enforce version control of hard copy prints, with the stamped statement ”This document is uncontrolled when printed, check EDMS for latest version”.

  • Unstructured Data

    Unstructured data is a generic term for information that is either not contained in a database (or some other type of data structure) or does not follow a predefined manner of organization. Unstructured data can be further classed as textual or non-textual, textual unstructured data is found in email messages, presentations, documents, instant messages and non-textual unstructured data is found as images, audio files and video files. It is generally more commonly used to refer to soft copies but can apply to hard copy also. There are many challenges posed by the sheer volume of unstructured data that is now generated in today’s age of information. It can be expensive in terms of storage, it can make information difficult to locate and utilize. It can also be labour and resource heavy if it requires scanning in order to be able to be searchable. Computer World states that “unstructured information might account for more than 70%–80% of all data in organizations”.

  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

    URL is a type of URI Uniform Resource Identifier) most commonly used for the addresses of web pages on the World Wide Web, for example http://www.quantumdocx.com.

  • VDRL (Vendor Documents Requirements List)

    See SDRL (Supplier Data Requirements List)

  • Vendor

    3rd party supplier of equipment or people based services.

  • Verification

    The process of checking against predefined criteria. For example, a Document Controller will perform verification that a document meets all quality and project requirements prior to issuing it. For an example of a Document Control checklist please see free downloads.

  • Version Control

    In its simplest terms effective version control is the management of controlled documents through the revision process to ensure that people view/edit the latest version at all times. Within Document Control it is now more common for the term version to be applied as a lower level tracking indicator for working copies being revised. This version racking does not find its way into a publicly accessible area it is only used to help keep track of the modifications being made to the document as it is being revised. This approach is particularly useful when document modifications are being performed by multiple users in different locations all collaborating in an EDMS and using the checking in and out function.

  • Virtual Rescan

    Virtual Rescan is largely now obsolete due to better document scanning but it is worth knowing about in case still required. A VR refers to a secondary software process that optimizes the scanned file, streamlines it, resizes and edits it in preparation for OCR. One of the most popular VR products is Kofax. See also OCR

  • VO (Variation Order)

    A VO records a contractual change and the associated steps, schedule and costs involved. Once agreed and signed the VO forms a contractual agreement that supersedes part (or all) of the original Contract Specification. Typically, the closer you are to delivery and handover date the harder it is to request or enforce a VO with the contractor because it basically entails additional work or rework. A VO is also sometimes known as a Change Order.

  • VPN (Virtual Private Network)

    The term VPN means Virtual Private Network which is a secure, encrypted connection to the internet. It is often used by companies who want to maintain effective internet security when an employee accesses the company network via the internet. A VPN is a program that has to be installed on a computer. Communication between members of a Virtual Private Network is similar to communication within a local network.

  • Watermark

    A watermark was traditionally found on paper copy letters and documents as writing or an image that was visible when the paper is held up to the light. Nowadays the term watermark is more commonly used to describe an electronic stamp inserted across a page or pages of a pdf file, for example ‘For information only’ or ‘confidential’.

  • Wet Signature

    Hard Copy Inked Signature on a Controlled Document or Record.

  • Work Flow

    The term WORKFLOW describes a pre-determined business software process that consists of a beginning, a sequence of steps and an end. In the field of Data and Documentation Control a workflow generally refers an automated sequence of functions executed within an EDMS to facilitate the official issue of a Transmittal / Document. The most common type of workflows are:

    • ‘Traffic Light’ or sequential type which entails a stop / start logic as the document is routed from one pre-determined recipient to the next as required
    • Parallel workflow that branch-out, depending on the result of one step of a workflow, various other workflow steps can follow that allows more concurrent activities and processes

    The distribution of a Workflow is established as per the requirements defined in:

    1. DDM (Document Distribution Matrix)
    2. PEP (Project Execution Plan)
    3. QM (Quality Manual)
    4. Contract

    It is possible that a Document Controller may be given the control rights to tailor the Workflow but normally such power user rights may be held by the DC Lead, DC Mgr or the IT department.

  • Working Copy

    A working document or a working copy of a document is not an officially approved and released document.

  • WORM (Write Once Read Many)

    WORM is used to describe write-once data storage. Typically WORM data storage is cartridge based with a unique identifying number or code that ensures that once written data cannot be manipulated or change. WORM is widely used in the Financial and Commercial Sectors.

  • XML (Extensible Mark-up Language)

    A structured way of sending and receiving business information.


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